Cannot connect to certain websites on any browser. Tracert and ping both work normally for affected websites

I cannot connect to Facebook or Imgur through Chrome, Firefox, or Edge, (I’m running Windows 10). This is on my laptop wifi connection, which I’ve tested on 4 different wifi connections (home, school, friends wifi, and work). I can ping and tracert these websites just fine:
Example Tracert

I’ve already tried adjusting any proxy settings and setting DNS preferences for my wifi card but it doesn’t seem to help. This is an ipconfig of my wifi card: Wifi card (I can’t actually view these imgur links since Imgur doesn’t work on my laptop.)